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边坡防渗增加灰沙岛地下淡水的实验与数值模拟研究

李英豪 韩冬梅 曹天正 宋献方 蔡砥柱

李英豪,韩冬梅,曹天正,等. 边坡防渗增加灰沙岛地下淡水的实验与数值模拟研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2023,50(0): 1-10 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202204006
引用本文: 李英豪,韩冬梅,曹天正,等. 边坡防渗增加灰沙岛地下淡水的实验与数值模拟研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2023,50(0): 1-10 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202204006
LI Yinghao, HAN Dongmei, CAO Tianzheng, et al. A study of the increase in subsurface freshwater on coral islands by slope seepage control: experiment and modeling[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2023, 50(0): 1-10 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202204006
Citation: LI Yinghao, HAN Dongmei, CAO Tianzheng, et al. A study of the increase in subsurface freshwater on coral islands by slope seepage control: experiment and modeling[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2023, 50(0): 1-10 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202204006

边坡防渗增加灰沙岛地下淡水的实验与数值模拟研究

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202204006
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(42277066)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项 (XDA13010303)、中国地质调查局自然资源综合调查指挥中心地质调查专项(ZD20220606)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李英豪(1995- ),男,硕士研究生,研究方向为水文水资源。E-mail:liyinghao1211@163.com

    通讯作者:

    韩冬梅(1978- ),女,研究员,研究方向为滨海地下水水文过程和海水入侵。E-mail:handm@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P641.2

A study of the increase in subsurface freshwater on coral islands by slope seepage control: experiment and modeling

  • 摘要: 地下淡水是支撑海岛居民生活用水保障和生态岛屿建设的重要战略资源。目前海岛淡水资源十分匮乏,鉴于我国灰沙岛的现实复杂性,亟需实施低成本、易操作且对岛礁稳定性及生态系统影响较小的增加地下淡水的措施。本研究提出了采用在海陆边坡处铺设防渗材料人为干预地下淡水体形成、增加淡水储量的措施,并通过砂箱实验和数值模拟相结合的方法在实验室尺度下分析了边坡防渗对灰沙岛淡水透镜体形成的影响,评估了不同因素在边坡防渗条件下增加地下淡水储量的效果,并以永兴岛为例定量评估了边坡防渗对地下淡水储量的影响。研究表明,边坡防渗通过改变地下水流场、增加淡水水头的方式增加了淡水储量。淡水体所需的稳定时间也随之增加。在长、宽、高分别为50,5,35 cm的砂箱中,在35°的边坡处铺设14 cm长的隔水材料,淡水透镜体达到稳定后最大厚度由原有的13.7 cm增加至24.9 cm,淡水储量由561.8 cm3增加至1592.3 cm3,所需稳定时间由120 min增加至150 min。增加的淡水储量随降雨强度增加、砂体渗透系数减小、边坡防渗深度增加、防渗材料渗透系数减小而增加。若在永兴岛海陆边坡铺设2 m深的隔水材料,在未来30 a,淡水储量将由天然状态的3.4×106 m3增加至4.4×106 m3,增加原有储量的1/4。研究可为我国岛屿地下淡水科学管理、水资源安全保障提供理论支撑和实践指导。
  • 图  1  灰沙岛淡水透镜体的概念模型(a)天然情景(b)边坡防渗情景

    Figure  1.  Conceptual models of freshwater lens in coral islands. (a, b represents natural situation and slope seepage prevention situation, respectively)

    图  2  砂箱物理模型

    Figure  2.  Physical model of sandbox

    图  3  边坡防渗前淡水透镜体的形成过程

    Figure  3.  Formation process of freshwater lens before seepage control of slope

    图  4  边坡防渗后淡水透镜体的形成过程

    Figure  4.  Formation process of freshwater lens after seepage control of slope

    图  5  数值模拟和实验得到的淡水体最大厚度和淡水储量

    Figure  5.  Maximum thickness of freshwater lens and freshwater reserves obtained by numerical simulation and experiments

    图  6  地下水水头及流场分布

    Figure  6.  Distribution of groundwater head and flow field

    图  7  不同参数对增加淡水储量的影响

    Figure  7.  Effect of different parameters on increasing freshwater reserves

    图  8  永兴岛的水文地质剖面

    Figure  8.  Hydrogeological profile of the Yongxing Island

    图  9  永兴岛的水头空间分布(a为天然状态,b为边坡防渗状态)

    Figure  9.  Spatial distribution of water head of the Yongxing Island (a, b represents natural situation and slope seepage prevention situation, respectively)

    表  1  数值模型的参数设置

    Table  1.   Parameters used in the numerical model

    模型参数取值取值依据
    砂体渗透系数/(cm·min−120.00实验室实测
    防渗材料渗透系数/(cm·min−10实验室实测
    降雨入渗强度/(cm·min−10.6实验室实测
    纵向弥散度/cm0.5参考文献[24-25]
    横向弥散度/cm0.05参考文献[24-25]
    淡水密度/(g·cm−30.998实验室实测
    海水密度/(g·cm−31.031实验室实测
    孔隙度0.53实验室实测
    给水度0.33实验室实测
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  参数赋值

    Table  2.   Parameters selection

    参数选取参数赋值
    降雨强度/(cm·min−10.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0
    砂体渗透系数/(cm·min−112, 16, 20, 24, 28
    边坡防渗长度/(cm·min−12, 5, 8, 11, 14
    防渗材料渗透系数/(cm·min−10, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  野外尺度数值模型的参数设置

    Table  3.   Parameters used in the numerical model

    参数选取取值来源
    岛屿长度/m3600/
    岛屿宽度/m2800/
    含水层高度/m40/
    孔隙度0.45文献[20]
    给水度0.10文献[19]
    天然区渗透系数 /(m·d-170文献[27]
    人工填造区渗透系数/ (m·d-15文献[19]
    全新世渗透系数 /(m·d-170文献[27]
    更新世渗透系数/ (m·d-1500文献[19]
    纵向弥散度/m3文献[3]
    横向弥散度/m0.3文献[3]
    垂向弥散度/m0.03文献[3]
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-11
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