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张掖盆地地热资源赋存特征及成因分析

尹政 柳永刚 张旭儒 李玉山 冯嘉兴

尹政,柳永刚,张旭儒,等. 张掖盆地地热资源赋存特征及成因分析[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2023,50(1): 168-178 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202202050
引用本文: 尹政,柳永刚,张旭儒,等. 张掖盆地地热资源赋存特征及成因分析[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2023,50(1): 168-178 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202202050
YIN Zheng, LIU Yonggang, ZHANG Xuru, et al. An analysis of the endowment characteristics and geneses of geothermal resources in the Zhangye Basin[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2023, 50(1): 168-178 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202202050
Citation: YIN Zheng, LIU Yonggang, ZHANG Xuru, et al. An analysis of the endowment characteristics and geneses of geothermal resources in the Zhangye Basin[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2023, 50(1): 168-178 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202202050

张掖盆地地热资源赋存特征及成因分析

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202202050
基金项目: 第二次青藏科考“重大工程扰动灾害及风险”项目(2019QZKK0904);甘肃省2022年省级基础地质调查项目(202241);甘肃省地矿局2021年度创新资金项目(2021CX08)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    尹政(1969-),男,本科,正高级工程师,主要从事地下水资源勘查、环境地质及地热资源评价等工作。E-mail:zyyz8029@163.com

    通讯作者:

    柳永刚(1970-),男,本科,正高级工程师,主要从事地质项目技术管理及矿床研究。E-mail:527709711@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P314

An analysis of the endowment characteristics and geneses of geothermal resources in the Zhangye Basin

  • 摘要: 张掖盆地地处甘肃省河西走廊黑河流域中游地区,地势南东高北西低。已有勘探资料显示,张掖盆地赋存丰富的水热型地热资源。通过研究该区域地球物理勘探、钻探、地温测量及水文地球化学等成果资料,分析了张掖盆地地热资源赋存特征,探讨了其成因模式。张掖盆地地热田属沉积盆地型中低温地热田,热储为呈层状分布的新近系白杨河组砂岩、砂砾岩,选择钾镁地球化学温标计算热储温度为47~82 °C,盖层为新近系上新统疏勒河组泥岩及第四系松散地层;地热水类型主要为碎屑岩类孔隙水,根据氢氧同位素特征推断其主要补给来源为南部祁连山区大气降水;祁连山北缘深大断裂和盆地内NNW向基底断裂是地热流体深循环良好的导水通道,地下水接受补给后沿导水断裂带或岩层孔隙裂隙运移,在深部热传导的增温作用下,赋存于碎屑岩类孔隙之中形成了本区的地热资源。水质分析结果表明:本区地热水属于溶滤型的陆相沉积水,水化学类型为Cl·SO4—Na型,F、SiO2、溶解性总固体、总硬度含量随水温的升高而增大;区内地热水3H值普遍小于2.0 TU,说明形成年代较早;14C分析结果进一步证实,区域地热水形成年龄超过20 ka,反映出地热流体补给路径长、径流缓慢的特点。研究成果可为张掖盆地地热资源勘查和开发利用提供重要参考。
  • 图  1  张掖盆地地震推断构造图(改编自文献[20])

    1—构造分区线;2—基底高程等值线;3—断层;4—地层时代;5—石油参数井及编号;6—地热勘探井及编号;7—剖面线及编号

    Figure  1.  Seismic inferred structure in the Zhangye Basin (modified from Ref. [20])

    图  2  张掖盆地地热地质剖面图

    1—第四系;2—新近系;3—白垩系;4—古生界;5—断层(虚线为推测);6—勘探井及深度;7—热储;8—大地热流;9—砂砾卵石;10—砂岩;11—砂砾岩;12—泥岩

    Figure  2.  Geothermal geological profiles of the Zhangye Basin

    图  3  白杨河组间泉子段厚度等值线图(改编自文献[20])

    Figure  3.  Thickness contour map of the Quanzi section of the Baiyanghe Formation (modified from Ref. [20])

    图  4  滨河新区ZYDR1井测温曲线

    Figure  4.  Temperature measurements of ZYDR1 well in the Binhe new area

    图  5  Piper地热水水化学类型三线图

    Figure  5.  Piper trilinear diagram showing the hydrochemical types of geothermal waters

    图  6  张掖城区及外围部分水样δD、δ18O与H·Craigh降水直线关系图

    Figure  6.  Plot of δD and δ18O in water samples in the city of Zhangye and nearby area

    图  7  张掖盆地地热田概念模型示意图

    1—第四系; 2—新近系上新统疏勒河组; 3—新近系中新统白杨河组; 4—白垩系; 5—石炭系;6—古生界;7—断裂及移动方向; 8—深部地下水运动方向; 9—降水; 10—大地热流传导

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of conceptual model of the geothermal field in the Zhangye Basin

    表  1  张掖盆地地热勘探孔地层时代及厚度对比表

    Table  1.   Geological age and thickness of strata tapped by geothermal exploration holes in the Zhangye Basin

    地层或侵入岩时代厚度/m
    临泽LZDR1井民参1井张掖
    ZYDR1井
    民参2井甘浚
    ZYDR2井
    体育公园
    ZYDR3井
    民乐
    MLDR1井
    第四系(Q)412.85669.10651.60685.00598.00590.00644.00
    新近系上新统(N2287.15806.00808.401117.00592.001055.001154.00
    新近系中新统(N1304.10328.00344.50358.00319.10375.00390.00
    白垩系(K)缺失3244.20
    (未揭穿)
    796.72
    (未揭穿)
    1660.00
    (未揭穿)
    120.60154.03
    (未揭穿)
    缺失
    奥陶系(O)未揭露未揭露未揭露未揭露423.38
    (未揭穿)
    未揭露未揭露
    加里东期侵入岩496.49
    (未揭穿)
    未揭露未揭露未揭露未揭露未揭露81.18
    (未揭穿)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  张掖盆地地热勘探孔孔隙型热储统计表

    Table  2.   Statistics of geothermal reservoirs of pore type tapped by geothermal exploration holes in the Zhangye Basin

    孔号位置井深
    /m
    水头埋深
    /m
    孔隙型热储岩性热储底界
    埋深/m
    孔隙型热储总厚度/m热储底界测温/°C
    LZDR1临泽县城南部1500.5962.00砂岩、砂砾岩1004.40134.5540.00
    ZYDR1甘州区滨河新区2601.2216.35砂岩、砂砾岩1804.50174.5049.70
    ZYDR2甘州区甘浚镇2053.08212.00砂岩、砂砾岩1509.10165.4041.50
    ZYDR3沙漠体育公园2174.00147.00砂岩、砂砾岩2020.00175.4858.64
    MLDR1民乐县新天镇2269.1869.51砂岩、砂砾岩2188.00193.0564.60
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  张掖盆地地下热水水化学分析结果

    Table  3.   Hydrochemical analyses of geothermal waters in the Zhangye Basin

    孔号温度
    /°C
    TDS
    /(mg∙L−-1
    总硬度
    /(mg∙L−1
    pHρ/(mg∙L−1
    ${\rm{K}}^+ $$ {\rm{Na}}^+$${\rm{Ca}}^+ $${\rm{Mg}}^+ $${\rm{CO}}_3^{2-} $${\rm{HCO}}_3^- $$ {\rm{Cl}}^-$$ {\rm{SO}}_4^{2-}$${\rm{NO}}_3 ^-$${\rm{F}}^- $偏硅酸偏硼酸游离
    CO2
    LZDR1453 432374.87.68.01 04484.239.90217.11 293701.66.21.428.3612.05.840.230.0010.061.166.98
    ZYDR1564 497286.78.513.71 40956.235.623.8743.01 331828.03.72.135.420.23.770.62<0.0020.022.208.40
    ZYDR2463 513509.47.612.11 017142.937.00167.51 285804.63.51.931.116.05.410.87<0.0010.330.777.63
    ZYDR3765 427487.97.146.01 58688.564.80773.11 4491 242.029.23.564.226.35.591.48<0.0020.581.4051.80
    MLDR1775 8101 131.07.761.71 522250.0123.00596.01 7541 408.037.23.659.83.210.801.040.027<0.02<0.01106.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  张掖盆地水样氢、氧同位素分析结果

    Table  4.   Results of hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of geothermal water in the Zhangye Basin

    编号位置地下水
    类型
    δ18O
    /‰
    δD
    /‰
    3H
    /TU
    H2鹰落峡河水−9.7−6258
    H3新河大桥河水−7.9−6151
    H4乌江大桥河水−6.9−4649
    PQ1山丹河泉水−6.0−4755
    PQ2乌江四社泉水−7.4−5351
    Y36张掖龙渠潜水−7.6−5255
    Y37张掖甘浚潜水−6.9−5165
    Y5张掖新墩潜水−7.1−5057
    Y41张掖大满潜水−6.5−4447
    Y10张掖城区承压水−7.8−5639
    Y11张掖城区承压水−9.2−6321
    Y14张掖城区承压水−9.2−5816
    Y47张掖乌江承压水−9.9−6120
    LZDR1临泽沙河地下热水−10.5−771.5±0.7
    ZYDR1张掖滨河新区地下热水−10.4−76<1.0
    ZYDR2张掖甘浚地下热水−9.5−74<0.5
    ZYDR3张掖党寨地下热水−10.0−771.3±0.5
    MLDR1民乐新天镇地下热水−10.3−76<0.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  张掖盆地地下热水热储温度估算

    Table  5.   Estimated temperature of geothermal reservoirs in the Zhangye Basin

    孔号LZDR1ZYDR1ZYDR2ZYDR3MLDR1
    ρ(K+)/(mg·L−18.0513.7312.0646.0461.70
    ρ(Mg2+)/(mg·L−139.9235.5837.0464.80123.00
    实测井口温度/°C45.0056.0046.0078.0077.00
    估算热储温度/°C47.8260.2957.0481.4980.80
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  张掖盆地地热勘探孔推测热水循环深度

    Table  6.   Estimated circulation depth of geothermal water in geothermal exploration holes in the Zhangye Basin

    孔号孔深/m测温深度/m测温/°C地温梯度
    /(°C·100−1·m−1
    热储底界
    埋深/m
    推测热水循
    环深度/m
    LZDR11500.591500.0045.602.581004.401588.91
    ZYDR12601.222600.0067.142.321804.502301.12
    ZYDR22053.082000.0047.702.041509.102453.53
    ZYDR32174.002120.0063.402.672020.002797.42
    MLDR12269.182200.0064.602.632188.002813.27
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-28
  • 修回日期:  2022-05-07
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-12-06
  • 刊出日期:  2023-01-13

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