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基岩海岛地下水与海水相互作用研究

张康 韩冬梅 曹天正 宋献方 王威 曹艳玲

张康,韩冬梅,曹天正,等. 基岩海岛地下水与海水相互作用研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2023,50(1): 3-12 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202112011
引用本文: 张康,韩冬梅,曹天正,等. 基岩海岛地下水与海水相互作用研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质,2023,50(1): 3-12 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202112011
ZHANG Kang, HAN Dongmei, CAO Tianzheng, et al. Interaction between groundwater and seawater in bedrock islands[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2023, 50(1): 3-12 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202112011
Citation: ZHANG Kang, HAN Dongmei, CAO Tianzheng, et al. Interaction between groundwater and seawater in bedrock islands[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2023, 50(1): 3-12 doi:  10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202112011

基岩海岛地下水与海水相互作用研究

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202112011
基金项目: 山东省第一地质矿产勘查院开放基金项目(2022DY05);国家重点研发计划项目(2021YFC3200502)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张康(1998-),女,硕士研究生,主要从事地下水水文过程研究。E-mail:zhangk.20s@igsnrr.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    韩冬梅(1978-),女,博士,研究员,主要从事滨海水循环与水安全研究。E-mail:handm@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P641.2

Interaction between groundwater and seawater in bedrock islands

  • 摘要: 中国北方基岩海岛水文地质条件独特,气候变化和人类活动不同程度地影响着海岛地下水与海水相互作用过程,然而对包括海水入侵(SWI)和海底地下水排泄(SGD)的水文过程的定量认识比较缺乏。本研究基于2012—2016年我国北方某基岩群岛降水、地下水水位、水质动态监测数据,运用数理统计、空间插值和水力学方法,分析了基岩海岛地下水与海水相互作用的特征和影响因素。结果表明,降水和开采是影响地下水、海水相互作用的主要因素,地下水水位变化滞后于降水事件约10 d;南岛东北岸、南岸的大部分地区没有发生海水入侵,地下水向海排泄过程较稳定,2012—2016年SGD速率均值为0.2 m/d,向海NO3-N通量均值为81.8 mmol/(m2·d);北岛东南地区是海水入侵的严重区域,地下水水位长期低于海平面且逐年下降,2012—2016年SWI速率均值为0.3 m/d,向陆NO3-N通量均值为69.6 mmol/(m2·d)。分别计算南、北两岛枯水季(2014年4月)、丰水季(2013年9月)SGD水量,北岛SGD水量为3.5×104~4.5×104 m3/d,南岛SGD水量为0.4×104~1.1×104 m3/d。相关结果可为基岩海岛地下水资源管理和生态环境保护提供重要参考。
  • 图  1  研究区地下水观测井位置图

    Figure  1.  Location map of groundwater observation wells in study area

    图  2  北岛(A-A’)和南岛(B-B’)水文地质剖面图

    Figure  2.  Hydrogeologic cross-section of the North Island (A-A’) and South Island (B-B’)

    图  3  2012—2016年地下水水位与降水量变化

    Figure  3.  Variations of groundwater levels and precipitation from 2012 to 2016

    图  4  2013年1月地下水水位等值线分布图

    Figure  4.  Distribution of groundwater-table contour in January 2013

    图  5  研究区地下水Cl 和NO3-N质量浓度分布图

    Figure  5.  Distribution of groundwater Cl and NO3-N concentrations in study area

    表  1  观测井离最近海岸的距离及水井基本情况

    Table  1.   The distance of the observation wells from the nearest shore and the informations of the observation wells

    观测井编号W1W2W3W4W5W6W7W8W9W10
    离近岸的距离/m760704698643598495431308250200
    地面高程/m18.66.725.917.525.317.15.115.43.124.4
    井深/m1001311010098756.31025100
    多年平均地下水水位/m−11.54.33.86.33.1−7.44.9−4.12.05.4
    地下水埋深/m30.12.422.111.322.324.50.119.51.119.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  海水入侵的现状评价等级划分[38]

    Table  2.   Classification of status evaluation of seawater intrusion

    分级指标
    氯离子质量浓度/(mg·L−1<250250~1000>1000
    入侵程度无入侵轻度入侵严重入侵
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  地下水观测井的SWI和SGD计算结果

    Table  3.   SWI and SGD calculation results of groundwater observation wells

    地下水观测井编号渗透系数/ (m·d−1多年平均水位和
    海平面的水位差/m
    井距离海岸的
    垂直距离/m
    地下水和海水的
    交换速率/ (m·d−1
    NO3-N质量
    浓度 / (mg·L −1
    时间NO3-N通量
    /(mmol· m−2·d−1
    W120−11.4760−0.326.32016-10-26−562.58
    282018-05-02−598.95
    W254.37040.03402015-06-2286.24
    362018-05-1777.62
    W3203.76980.111.22016-10-268.69
    212018-05-02158.6
    W4206.26430.195.22015-06-2272.39
    32018-05-1741.52
    W5203.15980.1
    W620−7.3495-0.321.82015-06-24−460.54
    26.82016-10-26−566.16
    192018-05-02−401.39
    W754.94310.06
    W820−4.1308−0.274.32015-06-22−81.8
    32018-05-17−57.47
    W9522500.04
    W10205.42000.541.42016-10-2655.44
    42018-05-02154
    注:多年平均水位和海平面的水位差、井距离海岸的垂直距离、NO3-N浓度数据来源于该岛自然资源局。NO3-N通量速率为正表示地下水排泄,速率为负表示海水入侵。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  地下水水样的水化学特征统计

    Table  4.   Statistics on hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater samples

    pHTDS
    /(mg·L−1
    总硬度(以CaCO3计)
    /(mg·L−1
    菌落总数
    /(CFU·mL−1
    质量浓度/(mg·L−1
    氯化物硫酸盐NO3-NFeMn
    最大值8.56979.0901.0210000.02730.0291.040.00.310.09
    最小值7.025.515.0ND9.07.11.20.040.01
    平均值7.41093.5411.010724.0420.676.415.20.100.00
    标准差0.41325.0210.038769.5628.559.212.90.100.00
    变异系数0.11.20.53.61.50.80.80.601.00
      注:ND表示未检出。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-12-05
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-01-13
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