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西藏波密冰川覆盖区大型河流与断裂带地下水转化关系

马剑飞 李向全 张春潮 付昌昌 白占学 王振兴

马剑飞, 李向全, 张春潮, 付昌昌, 白占学, 王振兴. 西藏波密冰川覆盖区大型河流与断裂带地下水转化关系[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(5): 23-33. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104013
引用本文: 马剑飞, 李向全, 张春潮, 付昌昌, 白占学, 王振兴. 西藏波密冰川覆盖区大型河流与断裂带地下水转化关系[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(5): 23-33. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104013
MA Jianfei, LI Xiangquan, ZHANG Chunchao, FU Changchang, BAI Zhanxue, WANG Zhenxing. Transformation characteristics of the large-flow river and groundwater in the fault zone in the glacier-covered area of Bomi in Tibet[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(5): 23-33. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104013
Citation: MA Jianfei, LI Xiangquan, ZHANG Chunchao, FU Changchang, BAI Zhanxue, WANG Zhenxing. Transformation characteristics of the large-flow river and groundwater in the fault zone in the glacier-covered area of Bomi in Tibet[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(5): 23-33. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104013

西藏波密冰川覆盖区大型河流与断裂带地下水转化关系

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202104013
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20211374;20190505)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    马剑飞(1987-),男,硕士,助理研究员,主要从事水文地质工程地质的研究工作。E-mail:majianfei@mail.cgs.gov.cn

  • 中图分类号: P641.1

Transformation characteristics of the large-flow river and groundwater in the fault zone in the glacier-covered area of Bomi in Tibet

  • 摘要: 川藏铁路波密段穿越冰川覆盖区,分布多条与断裂复合发育的大型河流,水量丰富,可与断裂共同构成构造高压涌水突泥灾害风险源。本文通过多期测流和对大气降水、冰川、河流和地下水水化学、同位素特征分析,研究了大型河流的流量变化特征和地表水与断裂带裂隙水的转化关系。结果表明:西藏波密冰川覆盖区河水主要接受冰川融水和大气降水补给。雨季河水的δ18O和δD值小于旱季,说明河水雨季和旱季的补给源结构不同。旱季气温低,以大气降水补给为主;雨季冰川融水量陡增,为主要补给源。断裂影响范围内的古乡沟、比通曲和龙冲曲河水流量较大,均超过4×104 m3/d,但年内流量波动幅度小于非断裂带影响范围的河流。河流可渗漏补给断裂带水。浅层循环断裂带水年龄5~10 a,中深层断裂带水年龄超过4000 a,水岩作用较充分。非断裂带影响范围的河流与基岩风化裂隙水存在较密切的水力联系和较频繁的相互转化。研究成果可为青藏高原东部冰川覆盖区铁路隧道高压涌水突泥灾害的早期识别和灾害防范措施制定提供参考。
  • 图  1  研究区地质地貌与采样点位置图

    Figure  1.  Geological geomorphology and location of the samplingof study area

    图  2  研究区主要地表水流量统计

    Figure  2.  Statistics of the main surface water flow in the study area

    图  3  水化学Piper三线图

    Figure  3.  Piper diagram of the water samples

    图  4  研究区河水和地下水吉布斯图

    Figure  4.  Gibbs diagram of river water and groundwater in the study area

    图  5  Ca2+/Na+${\rm{HCO}}_3^- $/Na+(a)与Ca2+${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $(b)毫克当量浓度关系图

    Figure  5.  Milligram equivalent concentration diagram of (a) Ca2+/Na+ vs ${\rm{HCO}}_3^- $/Na and (b) Ca2+ vs ${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $

    图  6  研究区水体Eh-pH值关系图

    Figure  6.  Relationship between Eh and pH in the water samples in the study area

    图  7  研究区河水Fe和Mn的质量浓度

    Figure  7.  Concentration of Fe and Mn in river water

    图  8  水样δD和δ18O关系图

    Figure  8.  Plot of δD-δ18O of the water samples

    图  9  龙冲曲补给源比例图

    Figure  9.  Proportion of the supply sources in Longchongqu

    图  10  不同类型水体转化过程模式图

    Figure  10.  Transformation process model of different types of water

    表  1  水样主要水化学指标值

    Table  1.   Concentration statistics of the main hydrochemical indexes of water samples

    样品分类项目pHTDSK+Na+Ca2+Mg2+Cl${\rm{SO}}_4^{2-} $${\rm{HCO}}_3^- $
    /(mg·L−1
    地表水—
    2020年
    4月
    最大值7.99551.005.162.84147.4023.071.75353.50158.50
    最小值7.3384.001.290.8521.951.881.4015.1953.84
    平均值7.57248.532.651.5362.657.791.69118.3585.86
    标准差0.18143.921.080.5837.505.210.13102.2827.91
    中位数7.57210.002.241.3646.166.651.7590.2383.75
    变异系数0.020.580.410.380.600.670.080.860.33
    地表水—
    2019年
    8月
    最大值8.05196.174.391.3056.208.690.2080.31173.20
    最小值7.4837.090.400.478.620.980.054.2927.83
    平均值7.8396.181.640.7226.203.460.0925.1564.26
    标准差0.1955.891.150.2216.102.260.0422.5341.16
    中位数7.9083.821.450.6922.303.060.0821.6752.57
    变异系数0.020.580.700.310.610.650.450.900.64
    地下水最大值7.691325.006.283.30340.0023.042.79848.60191.40
    最小值7.50176.004.691.0248.233.511.7532.03122.60
    平均值7.58612.505.621.94158.1114.592.18332.11142.25
    标准差0.08462.820.580.86118.458.550.45336.1428.48
    中位数7.57474.505.761.73122.1115.902.10223.91127.50
    变异系数0.010.760.100.440.750.590.211.010.20
    降水及
    冰川
    最大值7.4567.370.555.2412.571.591.758.5053.78
    最小值6.3810.630.390.101.070.081.401.416.52
    平均值6.8036.020.491.855.931.061.524.7531.07
    标准差0.4723.540.072.404.860.690.162.9119.34
    中位数6.5630.070.540.214.151.511.404.3332.90
    变异系数0.070.650.151.300.820.650.110.610.62
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  样品年代半定量对应表

    Table  2.   Half quantitive corresponding table between content and age

    样品类型及编号氚含量/TU半定量年龄*分类
    泉-YGA106.2±0.95~10 a浅循环地下水
    泉-YGA284.1±0.85~10 a浅循环地下水
    泉-YGA343.9±0.81952年前补给与
    5~10 a补给混合水
    浅循环地下水
    钻孔样品2.9±0.74640 a中深循环地下水
    地表水-YGA015.9±0.9河水与地下水混合
    地表水-YGB177.0±0.9河水与地下水混合
    地表水-YGB308.5±1.2河水与地下水混合
      注:*钻孔样品为14C测定的表现年龄。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-31
  • 修回日期:  2021-04-15
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-09-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-10

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