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降雨诱发直线型黄土填方边坡失稳模型试验

陈林万 张晓超 裴向军 张硕 龚伟翔 钟玉健

陈林万, 张晓超, 裴向军, 张硕, 龚伟翔, 钟玉健. 降雨诱发直线型黄土填方边坡失稳模型试验[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(6): 151-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202010041
引用本文: 陈林万, 张晓超, 裴向军, 张硕, 龚伟翔, 钟玉健. 降雨诱发直线型黄土填方边坡失稳模型试验[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(6): 151-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202010041
CHEN Linwan, ZHANG Xiaochao, PEI Xiangjun, ZHANG Shuo, GONG Weixiang, ZHONG Yujian. Model test of the linear loess fill slope instability induced by rainfall[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(6): 151-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202010041
Citation: CHEN Linwan, ZHANG Xiaochao, PEI Xiangjun, ZHANG Shuo, GONG Weixiang, ZHONG Yujian. Model test of the linear loess fill slope instability induced by rainfall[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(6): 151-160. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202010041

降雨诱发直线型黄土填方边坡失稳模型试验

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202010041
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41790445);国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1504702)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈林万(1996-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事黄土填方边坡稳定性评价方面的学习和研究工作。E-mail:1317783721@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    张晓超(1978-),女,副教授,主要从事黄土滑坡形成机理方面的研究工作。E-mail:31685032@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P642.22

Model test of the linear loess fill slope instability induced by rainfall

  • 摘要: 近年来,随着“治沟造地”和“固沟保塬”等工程在黄土高原的陆续开展,出现了许多直线型黄土填方边坡。降雨是诱发边坡失稳的重要因素,但对降雨诱发直线型黄土填方边坡变形演化特征和破坏模式的研究较少。以直线型黄土填方边坡为研究对象,通过传感器监测、三维激光扫描和人工降雨,开展室内降雨模型试验,记录了降雨入渗下边坡内部水文响应特征和边坡失稳破坏过程,并对湿润锋、土颗粒运移、坡体内部变形响应、裂缝演化特征及破坏模式进行了分析。试验结果表明:随着降雨入渗,湿润锋达到后,体积含水率增加,并在峰值后保持稳定,而基质吸力则减小,到达最低点后保持稳定。冲沟对填方边坡的影响较大,它的发育改变了坡体内含水率特征,同时也是控制边坡整体滑动的边界;边坡变形响应区域主要是以填方边坡前缘堆积区和后缘滑塌区为主;裂缝演化方向由边坡前缘向后缘发展,它的发育为雨水入渗提供优势通道,同时也加剧边坡的变形破坏;降雨形成的水动力驱使坡体中细颗粒从填方边坡后缘向前缘流失,减弱了土体颗粒之间的胶结能力,使其抗剪强度降低,进而使边坡失稳破坏。因此,在降雨入渗下,直线型黄土填方边坡的变形破坏模式为:坡顶冲沟破坏、坡脚软化→局部牵引坍塌、整体失稳→块体分割、流滑破坏。研究结果可为直线型黄土填方边坡的工程建设和滑坡灾害防治提供理论参考。
  • 图  1  试验仪器

    Figure  1.  Experimental instruments

    图  2  试验用土颗粒级配曲线

    Figure  2.  Grading curve of the test soil

    图  3  试验传感器布设

    Figure  3.  Sensor arrangement for the test

    图  4  降雨过程中填方边坡不同位置的含水率变化曲线

    Figure  4.  Variation curve of water content in different positions of the fill slope during rainfall

    图  5  降雨过程中填方边坡不同位置基质吸力变化曲线

    Figure  5.  Variation curve of matric suction at different positions of the fill slope during rainfall

    图  6  湿润锋运移示意图

    Figure  6.  Schematic diagram of wet front migration

    图  7  降雨过程中填方边坡裂缝演化特征

    注:红色线代表裂缝;LF代表裂缝名称;橙色线代表冲沟边界。

    Figure  7.  Crack evolution characteristics of the fill slope during rainfall

    图  8  降雨入渗过程中填方边坡变形响应云图

    注:正值代表方向是垂直地面向上,表示坡脚堆积;负值代表方向是垂直地面向下,表示坡顶滑塌。

    Figure  8.  Cloud image of deformation response of the fill slope during rainfall infiltration

    图  9  填方边坡不同位置处颗粒级配曲线

    Figure  9.  Particle gradation curve at different positions of the fill slope

    图  10  降雨过程中填方边坡变形破坏模式图

    Figure  10.  Deformation and failure mode of the fill slope during rainfall

    表  1  试验用土不同粒径体积百分比

    Table  1.   Volume percentage of different particle sizes in the test soils

    成分砂粒粉粒黏粒
    粒径/mm>0.0750.005~0.075<0.005
    体积分数/%8.6490.001.36
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  试验用土的基本物理指标

    Table  2.   Basic physical indicators of the test soils

    名称比重液限/%塑限/%塑性指数孔隙比饱和渗透系数/(m·s−1
    延安黄土2.7030.621.49.20.8531.26×10−6
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  模型填筑后不同层位的密实度

    Table  3.   Density of different layers after model filling

    填筑层号含水率/%密度/(g·cm−3干密度/(g·cm−3压实度
    114.51.791.560.90
    215.61.791.550.89
    316.41.811.550.89
    415.21.801.560.90
    515.61.791.540.89
    614.21.771.550.89
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  降雨方案

    Table  4.   Rainfall schemes

    降雨次数起止时刻降雨时间/min降雨强度/(mm·h−1
    第1次14:24—15:347018
    第2次16:14—16:241018
    第3次16:34—16:441018
    第4次16:54—17:041018
    第5次17:14—17:291518
    第6次17:44—18:042018
    第7次18:24—18:442018
    第8次18:59—19:141518
    第9次19:29—19:391018
    第10次19:49—22:2916018
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  降雨过程中不同监测点含水率响应时间

    Table  5.   Response time of water content at different monitoring points during rainfall

    传感器编号EC-1EC-2EC-3EC-4EC-5
    埋设深度/cm1010101020
    响应时间/min4374723359
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  降雨过程中不同监测点基质吸力响应时间

    Table  6.   Response time of matric suction at different monitoring points during rainfall

    传感器编号MPS-1MPS-2MPS-3MPS-4MPS-5
    埋设深度/cm1010101020
    响应时间/min63546640158
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  湿润锋平均运移速率

    Table  7.   Average velocity of the wetting front

    传感器编号EC-1EC-2EC-3EC-4EC-5
    湿润锋运移速率/(10−6 m·s−126.4315.3615.7950.5138.53
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  填方边坡不同位置处颗粒级配参数

    Table  8.   Gradation parameters of particles at different positions of the fill slope

    取土位置D10/mmD60/mmD30/mmCcCu
    原始0.0090.0370.0221.4534.111
    坡顶0.0120.0400.0251.3023.333
    坡中0.0100.0380.0231.3923.800
    坡脚0.0080.0440.0231.5035.500
    堆积体0.0060.0350.0161.2195.833
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-22
  • 修回日期:  2021-03-18
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-11
  • 刊出日期:  2021-11-15

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