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碎屑集合体撞击与停积过程的运动学特征研究

刘世涛 程谦恭 林棋文 姚志勇 孙先锋 邓凯丰 刘道胜 王进华

刘世涛, 程谦恭, 林棋文, 姚志勇, 孙先锋, 邓凯丰, 刘道胜, 王进华. 碎屑集合体撞击与停积过程的运动学特征研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(6): 140-150. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202009025
引用本文: 刘世涛, 程谦恭, 林棋文, 姚志勇, 孙先锋, 邓凯丰, 刘道胜, 王进华. 碎屑集合体撞击与停积过程的运动学特征研究[J]. 水文地质工程地质, 2021, 48(6): 140-150. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202009025
LIU Shitao, CHENG Qiangong, LIN Qiwen, YAO Zhiyong, SUN Xianfeng, DENG Kaifeng, LIU Daosheng, WANG Jinhua. Study on kinetic characteristics of the collision and emplacement of grains aggregation[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(6): 140-150. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202009025
Citation: LIU Shitao, CHENG Qiangong, LIN Qiwen, YAO Zhiyong, SUN Xianfeng, DENG Kaifeng, LIU Daosheng, WANG Jinhua. Study on kinetic characteristics of the collision and emplacement of grains aggregation[J]. Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, 2021, 48(6): 140-150. doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202009025

碎屑集合体撞击与停积过程的运动学特征研究

doi: 10.16030/j.cnki.issn.1000-3665.202009025
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1501000);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察(Grant No.2019QZKK0905);国家自然科学基金项目(41877226;41877237;41530639;41761144080);中铁第一勘察设计院集团有限公司科研项目(院科19-09-01)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘世涛(1994-),男,硕士研究生,主要从事高速远程滑坡研究。E-mail:shitaoliu4716@my.swjtu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    程谦恭(1962-),男,博士,教授,博士生导师,主要从事高速远程滑坡方面的科研与教学工作。E- mail: chengqiaogong@swjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P642.2

Study on kinetic characteristics of the collision and emplacement of grains aggregation

  • 摘要: 青藏高原高山峡谷区常发育崩滑碎屑流,这种灾害具有发育边坡高陡、碎屑流高能且坡脚撞击剧烈等特点。为了解这种碎屑流的运动规律及其堆积特征,设计并建立了自由下落的碎屑集合体撞击与停积过程的模型实验装置。考虑撞击过程对碎屑流运动和堆积的影响,获取不同粒径大小、体积、下落高度条件下,碎屑集合体的运动与堆积图像和定量化数据,并据此观察分析碎屑流的运动规律和堆积特征。主要结论如下:(1)碎屑集合体底部首先撞击地面,随后颗粒挤压形成剪切面,颗粒在剪切面上进行扩散运动并最终堆积。(2)撞击阶段,颗粒之间显著的动量传递作用致使碎屑集合体前缘颗粒运动速度较快、距离更远,并产生离散堆积现象。(3)自堆积重心至边缘,碎屑集合体的堆积厚度逐渐减小;堆积形态在运动初期呈近圆形,最终形态呈近菱形;运动中的力学过程导致出现横向脊和X型共轭脊现象。(4)碎屑集合体的粒径越小,体积越大,其主体运动距离、主体覆盖面积越大以及运动速度越快;体积与最大堆积厚度呈正相关关系;下落高度越小,其最大堆积厚度越大,运动速度越慢,与主体覆盖面积大体上呈负相关关系。(5)体积条件对碎屑集合体的堆积特征影响最大,粒径大小其次,下落高度影响最小。该研究可为川藏铁路沿线的工程结构设计及碎屑流的防治工作提供理论基础。
  • 图  1  试验装置图

    (a) 装置示意图;(b)释放装置图;(c)整体实物图

    Figure  1.  Diagram of the experimental setup

    图  2  试验用碎屑集合体

    Figure  2.  Grains aggregation used in test

    图  3  碎屑集合体运动过程正视图

    Figure  3.  Plan views of the motion of grains aggregation

    图  4  倾斜摄影测量法获取的照片

    Figure  4.  Photograph obtained by oblique photogrammetry

    图  5  数据处理获取的图像

    Figure  5.  Photograph obtained by data processing

    图  6  碎屑集合体运动过程侧视图

    Figure  6.  Lateral views of the motion of grains aggregation

    图  7  碎屑集合体表面形态变化过程

    Figure  7.  The changing process of the grains aggregation’s surface morphology

    图  8  各试验工况下最大堆积厚度

    Figure  8.  The maximum deposit thickness of every test condition

    图  9  各试验工况下主体运动距离

    Figure  9.  The main moving distance of every test condition

    图  10  各试验工况下主体覆盖面积

    Figure  10.  The main covered area of every test condition.

    图  11  各试验工况下扩散时间

    Figure  11.  The diffusion time of every test condition

    图  12  G6工况扩散速度云图

    Figure  12.  The velocity field diagrams of G6

    图  13  G6工况沿Y轴剖面

    Figure  13.  The profile along Y axis of G6

    图  14  最小体积与最大体积工况主体堆积侧视图

    Figure  14.  Lateral views of the main deposit in minimum and maximum volume

    图  15  最小粒径与最大粒径工况侧向高速摄影图像

    Figure  15.  Lateral high-speed photography of the minimum and maximum grain sizes

    图  16  最小和最大下落高度堆积体正射影像图

    Figure  16.  The orthophotos of deposit in minimum and maximum drop height

    表  1  试验方案

    Table  1.   Test plans

    实验工况集合体粒径
    大小/mm
    集合体
    体积/cm3
    下落高度
    / m
    实验工况集合体粒径
    大小/mm
    集合体
    体积/cm3
    下落高度
    /m
    实验工况集合体粒径
    大小/mm
    集合体
    体积/cm3
    下落高度
    /m
    F1/H40.1~0.25640.9G10.1~0.2580.9H10.1~0.25640.6
    F20.25~0.5640.9G20.1~0.25270.9H20.1~0.25640.7
    F30.5~1640.9G3/H40.1~0.25640.9H30.1~0.25640.8
    F41~2640.9G40.1~0.251250.9H50.1~0.25641.0
    F52~5640.9G50.1~0.252160.9H60.1~0.25641.1
    G60.1~0.255120.9H70.1~0.25641.2
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  标准差和极差表

    Table  2.   Standard deviation and range of test

    控制条件粒径大小体积下落高度




    最大堆积
    厚度/mm
    3.329.000.35
    主体运动
    距离/cm
    5.298.620.83
    主体覆盖
    面积/cm2
    227.37591.2327.32

    极差
    最大堆积
    厚度/mm
    8.8223.330.80
    主体运动
    距离/cm
    13.3421.092.16
    主体覆盖
    面积/cm2
    580.201510.9570.69
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-13
  • 修回日期:  2020-12-26
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-10-13
  • 刊出日期:  2021-11-15

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